Tag Archives: Punctuation

Common abbreviations (e.g., i.e., etc.)

For example (e.g.)

  • The latin term is exempli gratia
  • Write the long form, for example, in a sentence and the abbreviated form (e.g.,) when in brackets.
  • Note that there are full stops to indicate the abbreviation
  • Note that there is a comma after the phrase in both the sentence and the brackets to indicate a pause
That is (i.e.)
  • The latin term is id est
  • Write the long form, that is, in a sentence and the abbreviated form (i.e.,) when in brackets
  • Note that there are full stops to indicate the abbreviation
  • Note that there is a comma after the phrase in both the sentence and the brackets to indicate a pause
Etcetera (etc.)
  • The latin meaning is and the rest
  • Write the long form, etcetera, in a sentence and the abbreviated form (etc.) when in brackets
  • Note that there is a full stop to indicate the abbreviation
  • Tip: rarely use etcetera within a paragraph as it indicates that you have provided a sample only; so it probably should be in brackets.

 

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Filed under Grammar and punctuation tips

Using a colon, semi-colon or comma in essay writing

 Colon (:)

  • Place a colon (:) before you add a list things: bread, butter, milk

Semi-colon (;)

  • A semi-colon (;) is like a comma, but joins two part sentences together or appends a phrase to a sentence; for example, when you provide examples

Comma (,)

  • Place a comma (,) where you would pause when reading text aloud, or to separate items in a list.
  • If the list is provided in bullet form, then you don’t need to use a comma at the end

Leave a comment

Filed under Grammar and punctuation tips

Emphasizing words or phrases

Em dash (–), or elongated hyphen
  • An em dash (–), or double hyphen, is used to highlight a phase; for example, “I went to the market–in Petersburg–to see what the fuss was about.” In this case, you are wanting the reader to clearly understand that Petersburg is important.
  • If read aloud, the reader would read the phrase ‘in Petersburg’ with a highlighted tone from the rest of the sentence, to draw attention to the phrase.
  • A double em dash (or four single hyphens) can be used to obscure an obscene word; for example, “It was a d___ shame.”
  • An alternative, is to use brackets (); “I went to the market (in Petersburg) to see what the fuss was about.” In this case, you are not so concerned about the reader understanding where the market was.
  • If read aloud, the reader would read the phrase ‘in Petersburg’ with the same tone as the rest of the sentence.
Italics
  • To place emphasis on a specific word or phrase (e.g., make it emotive) you can italicize it; for example, “Justin went crazy when he heard about the event.”
Underline
  • Underlining a word or phrase also draws the readers attention to the emphasis added. However, today, underlining tends not to be preferred in academic writing.
  • Check your official style guide before using underlining; if in doubt, don’t use it.
Exclamation!
  • Use exclamations (!) sparingly in academic writing to highlight emotion (academic work is meant to be objective, and, therefore, emotion free). For example, “Finally!”

Leave a comment

Filed under Grammar and punctuation tips